Library of Congress 3 Federal Research Division Country Profile: Sudan, December 2004 COUNTRY PROFILE: SUDAN December 2004 COUNTRY Formal Name: Republic of the Sudan (Jumhuriyat as-Sudan). Short Form: Sudan. Term for Citizen(s): Sudanese.
Capital: Khartoum. Other Major Cities: Omdurman, Khartoum North, Port Sudan, Kassala, Al Ubayyid, and Nyala (according to decreasing Click to Enlarge Image size, 1993 census). Independence: Sudan gained independence from the United Kingdom and Egypt on January 1, 1956.
Public Holidays: Sudan observes the following public holidays: Independence Day (January 1, 2004), Feast of the Sacrifice/Id al-Adha (February 1, 2004*), Islamic New Year (February 22, 2004*), Uprising Day, anniversary of 1985 coup (April 6, 2004), Coptic Easter Monday/Sham an-Nassim (April 12, 2004*), Birth of the Prophet/Mouloud (May 2, 2004*), Revolution Day (June 30, 2004), end of Ramadan/Id al-Fitr (November 14, 2004*), and Christmas (December 25, 2004). The asterisk indicates holidays with variable dates according to the Islamic or Coptic calendar. Flag: Click to Enlarge Image Sudan 9s flag has three horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Prehistory and Early History: Northern Sudan was inhabited by hunting and gathering peoples by at least 60,000 years ago. These peoples had given way to pastoralists and probably agriculturalists at least by the fourth millennium B.C. Sudan 9s subsequent culture and history have largely revolved around relations to the north with Egypt and to the south with tropical Africa, the Nile River forming a cbridge d through the Sahara Desert ... more.
between the two.
The Ancient Egyptians sent military expeditions into Nubia, the region between the first and second Nile cataracts, and at times occupied Nubia as well as Cush, the land between the second and sixth cataracts, the population becoming partially Egyptianized. From the early eighth century to the mid-seventh century B. C., the Cushites conquered and ruled Egypt.
By the early sixth 1 Library of Congress 3 Federal Research Division Country Profile: Sudan, December 2004 century B.C., a Cushitic state, Meroe, had emerged that eventually extended southward almost to present-day Khartoum. Meroe maintained commercial relations with the Roman world, developed a distinctive culture and written language, and became the locale of an iron-working industry. It succumbed to invasion in the mid-fourth century A.
D. By the sixth century, three states had emerged as the political and cultural heirs of the Meroitic kingdom. All were ruled by warrior aristocracies who converted to Christianity, accepting the Monophysite rite of Egypt.
The church encouraged literacy, the use of Greek in liturgy eventually giving way to the Nubian language. Arabic, however, gained importance after the seventh century, especially as a medium for commerce. With the disintegration of the Christian Nubian kingdoms by the fifteenth century, Islamic civilization and religion spread throughout northern and eastern Sudan.
Pastoralists from Egypt filtered into the land, gradually giving rise to a new population composed of local Nubians and Muslim Arabs. Islam and the Mahdi: The coming of Islam gradually changed the nature of Sudanese society and facilitated the division of Sudan into northern and southern halves, one Arab, the other, African. In the sixteenth century, the Ottoman Turks, governors of Egypt, claimed Nubia as a dependency but exerted little authority beyond the Nile.
Meanwhile, in central Sudan, a new state called Funj arose with its capital at Sannar on the Blue Nile. The Funj checked the expansion of the Arabs, in the process becoming devout Muslims themselves. In the west, the Fur people formed the state of Darfur and similarly adopted Islam.
Both states engaged in the slave trade with Egypt. Early in the nineteenth century, the Egyptians sent another military expedition into Sudan, establishing a new administration known as the Turkiyah, or Turkish regime. The Egyptians divided Sudan into provinces, and in 1835 Khartoum became the seat of a governor general.
They fostered the growth of Islamic law and institutions and organized and garrisoned the new provinces of Bahr al Ghazal, Equatoria, and Upper Nile, home to the Nilotic Dinka, Nuer, and Shilluk as well as the non 3Nilotic Azande. In 1874 Egypt conquered and annexed Darfur. Slavery and the slave trade, age-old practices in Sudan, intensified during the nineteenth century.
Annual raids for slaves resulted in the capture of thousands of black Sudanese, the destruction of the region 9s stability and economy, and a deep hatred of Arabs among the Southerners. In the early 1880s, an Islamic cleric, seeking to create a cpurified d form of Islam and to throw off Ottoman rule from Egypt, took the title of cMahdi d ( cthe rightly guided one d), and launched a revolt against the Ottomans as well as against the British, who in 1882 had assumed control of affairs in Egypt. By late 1885, the Mahdi 9s forces, the Ansar, had driven the Egyptians out of Sudan.
Mahdist control of central and northern Sudan lasted until an Anglo-Egyptian army defeated the Ansar in 1898. The next year, the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium in Sudan was proclaimed, which provided for joint overlordship but which in effect placed control in British hands. Colonial Era: British authorities created a new administration in Sudan under a governor general and provincial governors.
Some economic development occurred, but it was confined to the Nile Valley 9s settled areas. In 1916 the British terminated Darfur 9s independence by annexing that sultanate. The three southern provinces, Bahr al Ghazal, Equatoria, and Upper 2 Library of Congress 3 Federal Research Division Country Profile: Sudan, December 2004 Nile, were separated from the North economically and politically to allow the South to develop in its own way, but in reality the region remained isolated and economically undeveloped.
Western missionaries introduced Christianity, established mission schools, and provided some social services to the black population. Sudanese nationalism developed after World War I as an Arab and Muslim phenomenon with its support base in the northern provinces. The nationalists were divided between those who favored unification with Egypt and a pro-independence movement.
The latter prevailed, and on January 1, 1956, Britain granted independence to Sudan. Independence: Independent Sudan continued to be bedeviled by Southerners 9 fears of domination by the North and of the imposition of an Islamic and Arabic-speaking administration. Discontent flared as early as 1955.
Rebellion began in earnest in 1963 and lasted through the 1990s except for a decade of peace from 1972 to 1983. Peace negotiations repeatedly foundered over the issues of self-determination for the South and the application of sharia (Islamic law). Beginning in 1983, Colonel John Garang assumed leadership of the Sudan People 9s Liberation Army (SPLA), the main opposition force.
The Northerners were headed after mid-1989 by Lieutenant General Umar Hassan Ahmad al Bashir and his ally, Hasan Abd Allah al Turabi, of the National Islamic Front party. The regime became increasingly Islamist, in keeping with al Turabi 9s views, and remained so even after al Bashir ousted al Turabi from the government and imprisoned him in 2002. Sudan 9s financial prospects improved dramatically in the late 1990s with the export of petroleum from oilfields in the South.
Negotiations between the regime and the SPLA produced results only after international mediation. In June 2002, both sides agreed that a referendum on self-determination for the South would be held within six years of a peace agreement and that in the interim the sharia would not apply to non-Muslim Southerners. Subsequent negotiations produced a cease-fire in much of the South, provisions governing national institutions, security arrangements, a formula for sharing oil revenues, and a federal governing structure.
These negotiations, however, were overshadowed by a separate rebellion in Darfur that began in 2003 over alleged economic and political marginalization. The al Bashir regime sent Arab militias into Darfur, whose atrocities drew international condemnation, threats of sanctions from the United Nations, and, in late 2004, emplacement of cease-fire monitoring troops from the African Union. Click to Enlarge Image GEOGRAPHY Location: Sudan is located in northeastern Africa.
It borders the Red Sea between Egypt on the north and Eritrea and Ethiopia on the southeast; it borders Chad and the Central African Republic on the west. Size: The total area of the country is 2,505,813 square kilometers. Land Boundaries: The length of Sudan 9s borders is 7,687 kilometers.
Border countries are: Central African 3 Library of Congress 3 Federal Research Division Country Profile: Sudan, December 2004 Republic (1,165 kilometers), Chad (1,360 kilometers), Democratic Republic of the Congo (628 kilometers), Egypt (1,273 kilometers), Eritrea (605 kilometers), Ethiopia (1,606 kilometers), Kenya (232 kilometers), Libya (383 kilometers), and Uganda (435 kilometers). Disputed Territory: Two regions along the border with Egypt between the Nile River and the Red Sea are in dispute, but Egypt administers the larger of the two contested parcels. Length of Coastline: The length of Sudan 9s Red Sea coastline is 716 kilometers.
Maritime Claims: Sudan claims a 12-nautical-mile territorial sea zone, an 18-nautical-mile contiguous zone, and jurisdiction over the continental shelf to a 200-meter depth or to the depth of resource exploitation. Topography: The country is generally a broad, flat plain, with low mountains in the northeast near the Red Sea coast, in the west, and on the southeast. An outcropping of low mountains in the south-central region is known as the Nuba Mountains.
The Nile River system divides the eastern third from the western two-thirds of the country. In the North, the Nubian Desert lies to the east of the Nile, the Libyan Desert to the west. Both are stony, virtually rainless, and dune- covered.
South of Khartoum, the vegetation gradually changes from dry grassland and woodland to verdant savannah. Principal Rivers: The Nile is the dominant geographic feature of Sudan, flowing 3,000 kilometers from Uganda in the south to Egypt in the north. Most of the country lies within its catchment basin.
The Blue Nile and the White Nile, originating in the Ethiopian highlands and the Central African lakes, respectively, join at Khartoum to form the Nile River proper that flows to Egypt. Other major tributaries of the Nile are the Bahr al Ghazal, Sobat, and Atbarah rivers. Climate: The climate varies from tropical wet and dry seasons in the South to arid desert in the North.
Annual temperatures vary little at any single location. The rainy season (April to November) and the length of the dry season constitute the most significant climatic variables. Natural Resources: Petroleum is Sudan 9s major natural resource.
The country also has small deposits of chromium ore, copper, gold, iron ore, mica, silver, tungsten, and zinc. Land Use: Sudan 9s total land area amounts to some 251 million hectares. About half of this land is suitable for agriculture, of which about 17 million hectares are actually cultivated.
Environmental Factors: Sudan suffers from inadequate supplies of potable water, declining wildlife populations because of warfare and excessive hunting, soil erosion, desertification, and periodic droughts. Time Zone: Local time in Sudan is Greenwich Mean Time plus three hours. 4 Library of Congress 3 Federal Research Division Country Profile: Sudan, December 2004 SOCIETY Population: Sudan has not had a comprehensive census since 1983.
The most recent survey occurred in 1993, which produced a population figure of 24.9 million, but it omitted the South because of insecurity. As a result, most if not all demographic and social statistics are based on dated and incomplete information. In 2003 the United Nations Population Division estimated Sudan 9s population at 33.6 million, a figure compatible with other estimates, although one or two estimates were higher by several million.
According to the United Nations, the annual growth rate was 2.8 percent. The United Nations estimated the population density at 13.4 persons per square kilometer, a misleading measurement because half of the population lives on approximately 15 percent of the land, and the northern third of the country is quite thinly populated. Estimates of urbanization ranged from 31 percent to 37 percent, with the greatest concentration in the greater Khartoum area.
Demography: In 2004, 44 percent of the population (male 8,730,609; female 8,358,569) was less than 15 years of age; 54 percent (male 10,588,634; female 10,571,199) was between the ages of 15 and 64 years, and those aged 65 years and older accounted for slightly more than 2 percent (male 490,869; female 408,282). In the overall population, there were 1.02 males for every female. The number of births per 1,000 population was 38; the number of deaths, 10.
The infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births was estimated at 69. The average number of lifetime births per female was 5.4. Life expectancy at b