Cerámica y Cultura: The Story of Spanish and Mexican Mayólica Teacher Resource Guide for grades K 3 12 1 Exhibition Curator: Robin Farwell Gavin, Curator of Spanish Colonial Collections Adapted from exhibition label text and lesson plans by Aurelia Gomez, Director of Education © 2003 Museum of International Folk Art. A unit of the Museum of New Mexico Portions of this project were funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, promoting excellence in the Humanities, International Folk Art Foundation, Museum of New Mexico Foundation, Department of Cultural Affairs, State of New Mexico, US-Mexico Fund for Culture, B.F. Foundation, The Clay Angel, Jackalope.
Acknowledgements Exhibition Design by Nancy Allen, Exhibitions Unit, Museum of New Mexico Graphic Design by Joseph Guglietti, Luba Kruk and Anita Quintana Project consultants Florence Lister Donna Pierce Alfonso Pleguezuelo Language consultants James K. Gavin Kenny Fitzgerald Participating Staff Department of Cultural Affairs (DCA) Tisa Gabriel, International Programs Manager Museum of New Mexico, Museum of International Folk Art (MOIFA) Joyce Ice, Director Jacqueline Duke, Assistant Director Annie Carlano Frank X. Cordero Larry Dalrymple Deborah Garcia Aurelia Gomez Martha Alexandra Greenway Palacio, Assistant Curator Barbara Mauldin Feliza Medrano, BF Foundation intern Ree Mobley Tey Marianna Nunn Cerámica y Cultura: The Story of Spanish and Mexican Mayólica Teacher Resource Guide for grades K 3 12 2 Patricia Sigala Paul Smutko Guadalupe Tafoya Chris Vitagliano Museum of New Mexico, Conservation Division Claire Munzenrider, Director Mina Thompson Larry Humetewa Teresa Meyers Museum of New Mexico, Exhibitions Division Mary Ann Cleary, Director Ron ... more.
Anaya Thayer Carter Blair Clark Teak Lynner Tom McCarthy Phil Nakamura Mimi Roberts Paul Singdahlsen Martin Valdez Museum of New Mexico, Education Division Sue Sturtevant, Director Special Thanks to: Judith Espinar Darby McQuade Lee Carter Nausika Richardson Benyamin and Rabia Van Hattum Rahmah Lutz Amy Bower Shelley Robinson Lynn Walters & Cooking with Kids Cerámica y Cultura: The Story of Spanish and Mexican Mayólica Teacher Resource Guide for grades K 3 12 3 Table of contents: Overview with Educational Objectivespage 3.
Introductionpage 5. Islamic Origins of Spanish Mayólicapage 7. Trade and Transformationpage 14.
Structurepage 22. Mayólica in Daily Lifepage 28. Key Vocabularypage 40.
Resourcespage 41. Appendix:page 44. Overview This Teacher Resource Guide was developed in conjunction with a traveling exhibition, Cerámica y Cultura: The Story of Spanish and Mexican Mayólica , which opened at the Museum of International Folk Art in November 2002.
This exhibition and the guide that accompanies it present an opportunity for educators, grades K 3 12, to look deeply into the forms and functions of mayólica objects to understand more about the cultures that formed the pieces and the history of the times in which they were produced. The Iberian peninsula, where mayólica reached it 9s apogee with lusterware, was composed of a wide variety of cultures, religions and ethnicities. Looking into the history and beliefs of these peoples gives all of us a greater understanding of how to get along as a global community today.
Tracing the trade routes of these ceramic pieces and witnessing how the Mexican culture transformed this art form is an excellent example of vibrant intercultural exchange. Using this resource guide as an impetus to study cultures through objects and as a jumping off point for developing creative expression in students is an informative way of assisting young people to comprehend who they are in relation to history, culture and artistic expression. Educational Objectives: Teachers and students will understand that the study of mayólica informs us about the history of the times in which it was created, the politics of those times, the dominant religions, the dress of the period, foods that were popular and the influences of the cultures that created it.
Teachers and students will understand that the creation of mayólica embodies relationships between diverse cultures and religions such as: Christians and Muslims, Spanish and Italians, Asians, Mexicans and Native Americans. Teachers and students will experience the way that the spread of mayólica illustrates trade patterns and Spain 9s global interactions. Cerámica y Cultura: The Story of Spanish and Mexican Mayólica Teacher Resource Guide for grades K 3 12 4 Teachers and students will comprehend the processes that are involved in the creation of mayólica.
Teachers and students will comprehend the changes the mayólica tradition has undergone and the sources of inspiration of contemporary mayólica artists. The following standards are addressed in the lesson plans: National Standards for Arts Education Content Standards for the Visual Arts Grades K 3 12 1. Understanding and applying media, techniques, and processes.
2. Using knowledge of structures and foundations. 3.
Choosing and evaluating a range of subject matter, symbols, and ideas. 4. Understanding the visual arts in relation to history and cultures 5.
Reflecting upon and assessing the characteristics and merits of their work and the work of others. 6. Making connections between visual arts and other disciplines.
Cerámica y Cultura: The Story of Spanish and Mexican Mayólica Teacher Resource Guide for grades K 3 12 5 Introduction Oficio noble y bizarroNoble and gallant profession Entre todos el primeroThe first among others Pues en las artes del barroFor in the art of clay Dios fue el primer alfareroGod was the first potter Y el hombre el primer cacharroAnd man the first pot. Spanish proverb Ceramics mirror culture. Many ceramic objects are used everyday, the plates we eat off of, the cups we drink from.
Their forms and decorations are a visual and physical presence which reflect economy, society, politics and religion. This is especially true of mayólica , whose polychrome palette likens it to a ceramic version of the painted canvas. Posset Pot / Orza para cposset d ca.
1680, England International Folk Art Foundation, Santa Fe Two-handled spouted pots were common vessels made for posset, a hot drink made of milk, liquor, sugar, spices and other ingredients, that was popular in the 17 th century as a delicacy and as a remedy for colds. The sloppy concoction was partially spooned out and partially sucked through the spout. The origins of European mayólica lie within Spain.
Spanish mayólica became, for a time, one of the world 9s most coveted ceramics. Prized for its aesthetic qualities, mayólica also acts as a visual history. Encoded in its colorful forms and lusters, we find evidence of Spain 9s early encounter with the Islamic world, her later alliance with the Christian world, and her political and economic ties with northern Europe and the Mediterranean world.
Elements of daily life in Spain -- diet, cuisine, costume and custom are also revealed. Mexico transformed this ceramic art form to reflect its distinct and vibrant culture. Plate / Plato 1800-1900, Manises, Spain Gift of the Heard Museum Museum of International Folk Art, Santa Fe What is mayólica (pronounced my yo leek ah) and why are there so many ways to say and spell it?
Mayólica is a Spanish term which refers to a specific type of glazed earthenware pottery. Earthenware forms are bisque- fired and coated with a glaze made out of tin and lead oxides which produce an opaque white surface that obscures the color of the clay and creates a white surface to embellish. The term mayólica is synonymous with Italian maiolica, English majolica, French Cerámica y Cultura: The Story of Spanish and Mexican Mayólica Teacher Resource Guide for grades K 3 12 6 faience, and Dutch delft.
Pronunciations reflect the spelling and linguistic traditions of each region. In Spain and Mexico it is often called loza or talavera (after the Spanish ceramics center located in the town of Talavera de la Reina). Some scholars suspect the word mayólica is derived from cMalíca, d the historic name for Málaga, a Spanish town that produced early tin-glazed ceramics.
Others believe that the term was coined after an Italian change in pronunciation of Mallorca, an island which shipped these ceramics throughout the Mediterranean. Whatever the case, the term mayólica describes a distinctly Spanish pottery, and indicates Spain 9s prominent role in its artistic creation. Questions for discussion 1.
How and why do everyday objects tell us about the culture that produces and uses them? 2. What does your household use everyday that reflects culture or tells a story?
3. What ceramic objects do you use at home? Where are they from?
Do you know who made them? Cerámica y Cultura: The Story of Spanish and Mexican Mayólica Teacher Resource Guide for grades K 3 12 7 Islamic Origins of Spanish Mayólica cAlthough the Arabs were finally defeated and expelled (from Spain), their presence during eight centuries created a bicultural experience unique in Western Europe& to this day, fully one quarter of all Spanish words are of Arab origin. Even in the bullfight, we use an Arab word to salute the matador, for ole!
Comes from the Arab word wallah . d Carlos Fuentes, The Buried Mirror The story of Spanish mayólica begins in Islamic Spain. In 711 Arab invaders brought Islam to the Iberian peninsula from northern Africa.
For the next 800 years, as Muslims and Christians fought for control of what was to become Spain, Islamic culture became firmly established. New agricultural techniques and medical knowledge, as well as the new art form of mayólica were introduced. Deep Dish / Brasero 1410-1480, Manises, Spain International Folk Art Foundation, Santa Fe How did mayólica come into being?
The earliest glazes developed in the Near and Middle East were of lead. These glazes were transparent, but by adding certain minerals, such as manganese-brown or copper-green, an overall shade was created that would hide the color of the clay. However, designs could not be painted in lead glazes as they would run.
In the 9 th century a remarkable discovery was made: by adding tin oxide to the lead glaze, an opaque white surface was created that could both cover the clay color and be used as a paint surface. This quality of opaqueness is unique to mayólica. The effect enabled potters to mimic Chinese porcelain and it became immensely popular.
These new techniques spread quickly and widely. Mayólica was being produced as early as the 10 th century in Spain. Lusterware Plate / Plato de reflejo metálico 1675-1800, Manises, Spain International Folk Art Foundation, Santa Fe In the 11 th century, Muslim potters living in Spain began to produce lusterware ( reflejo metálico ) by adding copper and silver oxides to tin-glazed mayólica surfaces to produce an iridescent metallic decoration.
Spanish lusterwares were shipped to England and the Netherlands, as well as Egypt and other ports around the Mediterranean. The beauty and craftsmanship of lusterware catapulted the Spanish ceramics industry to prominence. Even as Christianity began to take hold in Spain, the artistic excellence of the Islamic craftsman could not be ignored.
As Muslim artists worked increasingly under Christian patronage, a new style developed in all the arts that reflected both cultures: mudéjar , or chispano-moresque. d Cerámica y Cultura: The Story of Spanish and Mexican Mayólica Teacher Resource Guide for grades K 3 12 8 Bowl / Cuenco 1800-1900, Fajalauza district, Granada, Spain International Folk Art Foundation, Santa Fe The contributions which came from the Islamic Arab world included the potter 9s wheel, a style of kiln known as the horno árabe , the techniques for producing tin-glazed earthenware as well as the introduction of glazed ceramic tiles used to decorate architectural structures. What are other elements of Islamic art that infuse the forms of mayólica?
Islamic artists are followers of Mohammed (c. 570 3 630), the founder of Islam. The important texts of Islam are the Qu 9ran and the Hadith.
Artists are discouraged to create figurative images as they are forbidden in the mosque. Therefore, Islamic artists tend to work with purely decorative, non-figurative forms. Script and calligraphy are regarded as very high art forms because of their association with the Qu 9ran.
Geometric figures, stylized vegetal motifs (the arabesque) and non-representational designs became a dominant part of Arab artistic inspiration. Islamic art is often characterized by the term chorror vacui d or the fear of open spaces. Highly intricate patterns and decorative motifs, often the use of dots on mayólica forms, are an element that distinguished the influence of Muslim artisans.
Islamic culture emphasized the role of the artist as part of a larger tradition, one with exacting standards and established design frameworks and techniques. Patterns and design were passed down from masters to apprentices to people who made humble utilitarian objects for everyday use. Even mundane objects, such as plates and bowls are embellished to show an appreciation for all aspects of everyday life.